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Andrej Karpathy (Tesla)

Andrej is currently Senior Director of AI at Tesla,
 and was formerly a Research Scientist at OpenAI. His educational materials about deep learning remain among the most popular.
Programming The Software 2.0 Stack

Andrej's Landmark Post - "Software 2.0"

  • Software 1.0 consists of explicit instructions to the computer written by a programmer.
  • Software 2.0 can be written in much more abstract, human unfriendly language, such as the weights of a neural network.
  • In software 2.0, we restrict the search to a continuous subset of the program space where the search process can be made efficient with back-propagation and stochastic gradient descent.

Programming In The 2.0 Stack

  • If optimization is doing most of the coding, what are the humans doing?
    • 2.0 programmers label data
    • 1.0 programmers maintain the surrounding "dataset infrastructure":
      • Visualize data
      • Create and edit labels
      • Bubble up likely mislabeled examples
      • Suggest data to label
      • Flag labeler disagreements
  • Data labeling is highly iterative and non-trivial.
    • Lane lines are different across the world.
    • Cars have different shapes and sizes.
    • Even traffic lights and traffic signs can be ambiguous.
  • Label imbalances are very frequent.
  • Data imbalances are very common.
Realistic datasets: high label and data imbalances, noisy labels, highly multi-task, semi-supervised, active.

2.0 IDEs

  • Show a full inventory and statistics of the current dataset.
  • Create and edit annotation layers for any data point.
  • Flag, escalate, and resolve discrepancies in multiple labels.
  • Flag and escalate data points that are likely to be mislabeled.
  • Display predictions on an arbitrary set of test data points.
  • Auto-suggest data points that should be labeled.
Can we build GitHub for Software 2.0?